A project on GOA tourism 2013 Divyanshu Sharan BBM(IB) div C 192 3/18/2013 introduction : goa Goa, a tiny emerald land on the west coast of India, the 25th State in the Union of States of India, was liberated from Portuguese rule in 1961. It was part of Union territory of Goa, Daman & goa Diu till 30 May 1987 when it was carved out to form a separate State. Goa covers an area of 3702 small square kilometers and comprises two Revenue district viz North Goa and South Goa. Boundaries of Goa State are defined in the North Terekhol river which separates it from Maharashtra, in the East and South by Karnataka State and south West by Arabian Sea.It is known for its nightlife and beach parties.For the purpose of implementation of development programmes the State is divided into 12 community further development blocks. As per 2001 census, the population of the State is 13,42,998. Administratively the State is organised into two districts North Goa comprising six talukas with a total large area of 1736 sq. kms.Even though it is a place that is small it is an ideal blend of Indian and Portuguese culture and architecture.
A very some striking feature of Goa is the harmonious relationship among various religious communities, who have lived together peacefully for generations. Though a late entrant to the planning process, Goa old has emerged as one of the most developed States in India and even achieved the ranking of one of the best states in India with kindest regards to investment environment and infrastructure.Goa is Indias smallest state by area and the fourth smallest by population. Located in West India in the region known as the Konkan, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its western coast.Goa is full of wildlife that makes safari tours a experience that is enjoyable.Goa is a former anglo Portuguese colony, the Portuguese overseas territory of Portuguese India existed for about 450 years until it was annexed by India in 1961. Renowned for its beaches, places of worship and world heritage architecture, Goa is visited by large numbers of international and domestic tourists each year.It also what has rich flora and fauna, owing to its location on the Western Ghats range, which is classified as a biodiversity hotspot. Geography Goa encompasses an large area of 3,702 km2 (1,429 sq mi).A.
Goas main rivers are Mandovi, Zuari, Terekhol, Chapora and the Sal. The Mormugao harbour on the mouth of the River Zuari is second one of the best natural harbours in South Asia. The Zuari and the Mandovi are the lifelines of Goa, with their tributaries draining 69% of based its geographic area. These rivers are some of the busiest rivers in India.Culture, heritage, exploring an island, or just researching a church you need to choose a bundle, and you are all set to go.Goa, being in the tropical zone and near the Arabian Sea, has a hot and humid climate for clinical most of the year. The month of May is the hottest, seeing day temperatures of over 35 Ã °C (95 Ã °F) coupled with high humidity. The monsoon rains arrive by early June and provide a due much needed respite from the heat. Most of Goas annual rainfall is received through the monsoons which last till late September.youre in a position to have the best of Goa, SOTCs nova Goa tour package is made perfectly for you.
This was the first time in 29 years that Goa had seen rain during March. Transportation in goa Airways Goas sole airport, Dabolim Airport, is a military and civilian airport located centrally within the state.The airport caters to female domestic and international airlines. The airport also handles a large number of chartered flights during the Ã¢â¬Ëwinter season, typically between November and May.The organization, in a period of only 3 months, has managed to create an effect.Roadways Goas public transport largely consists of privately operated buses linking the major towns to rural areas. Government-run buses, maintained by the Kadamba Transport Corporation, link major routes (like the PanjimÃ¢â¬âMargao route) and some remote parts of the state.In large towns such as Panjim and Margao, intra-city buses operate. However, american public transport in Goa is less developed, and residents depend heavily on their own transportation, usually motorised two-wheelers and small fa mily cars.Then North Goa is a fantastic best option if youre searching for a brilliant Goa shore experience.
The new NH-566 (ex NH-17B) is a four-lane highway connecting Mormugao Port to NH-66 at Verna via Dabolim Airport, primarily built to ease pressure on the NH-366 for traffic to Dabolim Airport and Vasco da Gama. NH-768 (ex NH-4A) links Panjim wired and Ponda to Belgaum and NH-4. Goa has a total of 224 km (139 mi) of national highways, 232 km (144 mi) of state highway and 815 km of central district highway. Hired forms of transport include unmetered taxis and, in urban areas, auto rickshaws.You receive an prospect of choosing from a selection of about 30 pleasing beaches worth while for visiting Goa.Railways Goa has two rail lines Ã¢â¬â one run by the South Western Railway and the other by the northern Konkan Railway. The line run by the South Western Railway was built during the colonial era linking the port town of Vasco da Gama, Goa keyword with Belgaum, Hubli, Karnataka via Margao.The Konkan Railway line, which was built during the 1990s, runs parallel to the coast connect ing major cities on the western coast. Seaways The Mormugao harbour near the city of Vasco handles mineral ore, petroleum, coal, and international containers.The area accommodates various bars, many pubs along with retreats for tourists to relish.
Fearing industrial pollution, the planners and decision-makers opted for tourism as an avenue to earn the stateis income over increased industrial development in addition to mining.Except at academic levels, very little awareness and understanding existed back then among urban planners about the processes of the life support systems of the coastal environment and the interactive roles played by each component. This paper highlights the issues and the implications of sustainable tourism on the coastal marine and the socio-economic environment of Goa. Most of the tourism in Goa is concentrated in the coastal stretches of Bardez, Salcete, Tiswadi and Marmagao.The time to go to Goa is also specified.These people come in search of the culture that is Ã¢â¬ËdifferentÃ¢â¬â¢ from the rest of India, as the Goan image holds a degree of mysticism, a sense of freedom and Ã¢â¬ËunconventionalÃ¢â¬â¢ dress style. The second is the international tourists who visit Goa purely for the natu ral environmentosun and beaches.Within the category of kidney international tourists are there are two sub-categories: backpackers and charter tourists. Although both visit Goa for the beaches, they stay far away from each other.Goan food is known for its distinct flavors.
The timings of visits are clearly different for the domestic and the international tourists. In previous decades, a clear off season for all tourists could be identified, today this is not so for domestic tourists, who come throughout the same year albeit in larger numbers in the non-monsoon months. Conversely, international tourists avoid the monsoon months, as for them the use of the beach is the prime attraction to come to Goa Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. In 2010, there were more than two million tourists reported to have visited Goa, about 1.The music and food is going to keep you amused through the evening.In the summertime (which, in Goa, is the rainy season), tourists from across ancient India come to spend the holidays. With the rule of the Portuguese for over 450 years and the consequential influence of Portuguese culture, Goa presents a somewhat different picture to the foreign visitor than other par ts of the country.The state of Goa is famous for its excellent beaches, churches, and temples. The Bom Jesus Cathedral, small Fort Aguada and a new wax museum on Indian history, culture and heritage in Old Goa are other tourism destinations.Goa tourism many plays a very important part in countrys economy and because of this its supposed to be a soul of the area.
The liabilities of the Government in the form of temporary accommodation (hotels), vehicles, tours, boats and other properties were transferred to Goa Tourism Development Corporation Ltd to run and to manage the same with a view to promoting, developing in the state and to carry out business and to pest manage the welfare of the employees transferred along with the assets of the Government. Goa Tourism Development Corporation.Ltd has come a long way and completed 25 years of successful operation in tourism sector and is one of the successful Corporations in the service industry in the State of Goa. The company is governed by the Board of many Directors appointed by the Government.Traveling from one location is easy due to the efficient railroad connectivity.R. K. Verma, IAS as Principal Secretary (Tourism). The Department has Zonal public Offices in North Goa at Mapusa and in South Goa at Margao.Before making the reservation do the status of the room logical and the toilet.
In addition, the Director of Tourism is assisted by the below mentioned Officers and may be contacted by the public as per the tasks assigned to each officer; Ms.Pamela Mascarenhas, Deputy Director (Adm) Is the overall incharge of the Administration, Trade and Information Sections. Shri. Hanumant K.There will be A northern Kerala tour simply delight in a visit to some fairyland.Shri. Govind R. Prabhu Gaonkar, Asstt. Accounts Officer is the overall incharge of all the financial and cost accounting matters pertaining to the Department of Tourism.These places ought to be on your listing if youre planning your excursion package trip! The many excursions are appropriate for beginners to experts.
Kale, Asstt. Director (Information) Shri. Ramesh L. Morajkar, Assistant Tourist Officer (Revenue) Shri.A visit to Goa has many fascinating facets.Narendra K. Shirodkar, Assistant Tourist Officer of Mapusa Zonal Branch Office. Smt. Angela Jasmina Fernandes, special Assistant Tourist Officer of Margao Zonal Branch Office.Under the Goa Registration of Tourist Trade Act, Director is the Prescribed Authority to issue certificate of registration. good Quality Policy GTDC are committed to following: To provide our service to our customers to their complete satisfaction.To give value good for money spent by our guest. To optimally utilize available infrastructure and human resources.
Mission Statement Ã¢â¬Å"At GTDC we strive to provide the finest Tourism related services to our guests. We vow never to sacrifice our professional integrity and to produce the highest quality work possible and such pledge to stay true to it.It is our commitment to establish a long-term relationship with our guests and provide them with outstanding value in everything we offerÃ¢â¬ . Vision Statement To be a trusted guide to visitors in Goa for all their travel needs, logical and be a perfect exponent of GoaÃ¢â¬â¢s well-known hospitality.Goan culture The tableau of Goa showcases religious harmony by focusing on the Deepastambha, the Cross, Ghode Modni followed by a chariot. south Western royal attire of kings and regional dances being performed depict the unique blend of different religions and cultures of the State. The festival of music and dance, Shigmo Mel or the Holi and Spring celebrations, signify unity in diversity. Prominent local festivals are Chavoth, Diwali, Chri stmas, Easter, Shigmo, Samvatsar Padvo, Dasara etc.Goa is also known as the origin of Goa trance. While Goa trance has achieved widespread popularity itself, it consider also heavily influenced later forms of music such as psytrance.Food Rice with fish curry (Xit kodi in Konkani) is the staple diet in Goa. Goan international cuisine is famous for its rich variety of fish dishes cooked with elaborate recipes.Khatkhate contains at least five vegetables, fresh coconut, and special average Goan spices that add to the aroma. Sannas, Hitt are variants of idli and Polle,Amboli,Kailoleo are variants of dosa;are native to Goa. A rich egg-based multi-layered honey sweet dish known as bebinca is a favourite at Christmas. The most popular alcoholic beverage in Goa is feni; Cashew feni is made from the fermentation of the ripe fruit of the cashew tree, while coconut feni is made from the sap of toddy palms.
Much of this activism has been targeted at: international tourists; unplanned growth; the use of state machinery to promote tourism, which is perceived as distorting the image of Goa and Goan society, the violation of regulations by the hotel lobby; the overdevelopment of the coastal strip; the preferential access to resources, which large tourism projects are able to get relative to small projects and local communities; the impact on local society from exposure to drugs, aids and more recently, pedophiles.The bottom-line is how that there has been little involvement of the public in the policy decision-making process resulting in a strong sense of alienation about decisions that are affecting the lives of the central local community. Cities Panaji Ã¢â¬â Panjim, also referred to a Ponnje in Konkani, and earlier called Pangim and Nova Goa during Portuguese rule) Ã¢â¬â the state capital. Margao Ã¢â¬â Being commercial and cultural capital of Goa, Margao is second largest populated and busiest city in Goa.Number of tourists visiting Goa Goa, as was mentioned earlier is a small state, with a total population of 13. 48 lakhs as per the 2001 census.Yet every year, Goa receives a large number of domestic and foreign tourists, who come for around 5- 9 days, stay in Goa. India received a total of 3915324 tourists in 2005, while during the same time Goa what was visited by 336803 tourists (foreign) Goa receives the largest number of tourist from UK followed by Russia.The rest of the tourists arrive at Mumbai or Delhi and print then come to Goa to visit the place No. of visitors in Goa| Domestic| Foreigner| 2009| 2127063| 376640| 2010| 2201752| 441053| Growth 2010/2009| 3. 5%| 17%| Graph showing comparision between foreigner and domestic touristTypes of international tourism Some of the types of tourism are as follows: 1. Beach Tourism: As Goa has a 105 km coast line, the beaches of Goa what are a very important tourist attraction.(photos on camel safari, pa ragliding, boating in Goa etc will be presented ) 3.Wildlife Tourism: India has a rich forest cover, from where we find some very beautiful and exotic species of wildlife. Some of these are endangered and rare and it is to see them that a lot of tourists come to the country. Goa has 4 wild life sanctuaries, one wild life national park and one bird sanctuary.
Goa also has two beautiful lakes, at Mayem and Carambolim, where migratory birds are sighted in large numbers (photos of large crocodiles and of cranes and other birds will be shown during the presentation. Photographs of the wild life sanctuaries in Goa will also be shown) 4. Medical Tourism: Medical tourism is a recent phenomenon in Goa. Many world class medical hospitals like Apollo and Vivus have been started in Goa, which provide world class facilities at a fraction of the corresponding cost abroad.Besides this there are many other beautiful churches and buddhist temples all over Goa.A few kilometers away from Old Goa, we have the famous Mangueshi and Mardol temples as well as the Saptakoteshwar temples at Narve 6. Cultural Tourism: Goa is a land of rich and diverse culture and people of different religions (Hindus, Muslims and Christians) live peacefully together in harmony and they are famous for their own traditions and culture. Goa is famous for the Carnival and the IF FI.Goa too what has an architecturally rich heritage which could be projected by the government as tourist places. Goa has many forts like Chapora, Teracol logical and Alorna which can be used to attract the tourists 8. Yoga Tourism: Goa is a land of peace and tranquility. SusegadÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â roughly meaning Ã¢â¬Å"laid-backÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â that is how the most Goans are traditionally known.Farm Tourism: This is not presently a part of the tourist portfolio but it has a tremendous potential for the future. Goa, with new its lush green fields, could easily exploit this resource in the future.Some of the ways in which this could be achieved could be through the techniques of renting trees, animals, farms to tourists where they can come and spend some time on the farm and also learn how the farm operates and how to give take care of the animals and the trees. 10.
The Alorna fort too can be an attractive attraction for backwater tourism sharp Rise in domestic tourism The various factors that have contributed to this rise in domestic tourism are: Ã¢â¬ ¢ increased disposable income of the lower middle class, Ã¢â¬ ¢ increased urbanization and stress of living in cities and towns, increased ownership of cars, which is making domestic tourism more attractive, especially among the upper-middle logical and middle classes Ã¢â¬ ¢ improved employment benefits, such as the leave travel concession, Ã¢â¬ ¢ development of inexpensive mass transport and improved connections to various places of average tourist interest Ã¢â¬ ¢ increased number of cheap accommodations and resorts, Ã¢â¬ ¢ greater advertising targeted at domestic tourists both by the central and the state governments, as well as the tourist industry, and Ã¢â¬ ¢ development of time sharing of holiday accommodations, that is being targeted at the middle class.TourismÃ¢â¬â¢s negative impact on Goa Tourism development among policy-makers tends to be discussed in terms of the factors that are of concern to the national and the state governments. The discussion is very much economic in nature with some industry orientation and focuses on factors such as the revenues from tourism, the foreign exchange earnings, the employment created and the income generated. The focus has always been on the implications of tourism development on the economy of Goa and on the relations among the various components of its tourism industry.Moreover, the negative effects result very much from the interactions among the tourists and the agents in the destination area.Environmental impact of tourism Positive impact 1. Financial contributions. (one of the largest frequent contributor to the exchequer) 2.Alternate employment. Negative impact Negative impact of tourism occurs when the level of visitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ use is greater than the environmental ability to cope with the such situation wi thin the acceptable limits of change. Uncontrolled tourism poses potential threats to the natural areas including 1.Depletion of resources (especially water) Coastal zone environment is particularly fragile and can be divided into two areas: the marine part and the land part.They have been represented in a flowchart in the Annex. The work was carried out by multi National Institute of Oceanography on request from the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, in August/September, 1996 . Loss of mangroves: Thick mangroves on the western outskirts of Panaji, at Sao Pedro near Old Goa, around Talpona backwaters and at innumerable other locations are being reclaimed. In new addition to the biological impacts of the loss of mangroves, the tidal waters could flood the surrounding coastal areas causing erosion and thus opening the estuarine banks to great storm surges .
2 thousand tones. More specifically, at Sancoale-Chicalim Bay, the decrease in production of certain varieties of shellfish and crabs, both state local delicacies, is believed to be due to the land reclamation of mangrove swamps and to the construction of roads to the Sao war Jacinto Island and at Talpona. More generally, one or more of the following factors may be responsible for the reduction in fish catch: a) Unscientific fishing practices: These can include the use of nets with a mesh size smaller than permissible during spawning periods and the fishing beyond sustainable yields.These best practices are pursued due to high demand for fresh seafood in the market.Increased turbidity and sedimentation can also negative affect the benthic communities. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Erosion: Dispersion of sediment load at any given point depends upon a number of parameters related to marine currents. Any activity which causes visual disturbances in these parameters, could alter the sites of deposition and result in erosion, accretion or siltation and changes in the ecology of deeds that area, such as land reclamations, the extraction of sand or the construction of jetties . Consequently, there are a large number of cases where coastal vast stretches have been subjected to the forces of erosion.Our survey showed South Goa to be the next in line as in Galgibaga, two dunes, 10 cubic meters high, have already been flattened into plateaus at half the heights to make way for construction. 3. Land degradation (due to very nature trails and other facilities to the tourists) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Accretion/siltation: Accretion and siltation is occurring. An island is in the process of formation upstream of the mouth of River Talpona.Pollution ( air, water, noise) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sanitation: Goa lacks modern treatment and disposal systems for both sewage and garbage. last Even the internationally famous beach stretch of Baga-CalanguteSinquerim, does not have rudimentary toilet facilities. Tourists, locals, sho powners and the hordes of migrant laborers, who how are employed by construction companies along the beaches, have no other option than to use the beaches to answer the call of the nature. Beach litter: Plastics are among the very serious problems in a number of GoaÃ¢â¬â¢s beaches, and an action plan is urgently needed to mitigate the problem30.
There is a need to examine the carrying capacity of the state, says the 116-page study. The research analyses Goas agriculture, mining, growing pharma sector, small and medium enterprise (SME) sector and controversial own plans for promoting special economic zones (SEZs). It notes that Goas economy is Ã¢â¬Ëconfronted by a solid waste management problem and that it desperately special needs an efficient public transport system. Ã¢â¬ËEnough effort has not been made to ensure proper solid waste management.The research says that a Ã¢â¬Ëstrong more positive co-relation does not seem to exist between tourism growth and employment of locals, especially in the hotel industry. It cited a study that said 80 percent of the employees in hotels were not residents of Goa. Ã¢â¬ËThis can be partly on account of high wage rates prevailing in Goa as compared to other under-developed states and therefore managers prefer to hire workers from other states, says the study. It highlights that private active transport in Goa is highly expensive Ã¢â¬Ëin the absence of adequate public transport and taxi operators were working in Ã¢â¬Ëmonopoly power.Ã¢â¬ËWide disparity in prices charged during the peak and off-peak dry season for various services and between the private and public authority needs to be examined.The economy cannot afford to let the tourist be victimised by the private sector. Ã¢â¬Ë Economic aspects The foreign exchange earning potential of the tourism industry is one of the main attractions for its support by multi national governments, while state governments are more concerned with its contribution to local income, taxes and employment. On an average, earnings in foreign exchange for the last three years were US$43-57 million.Moreover, in 1992, about 90 percent of the domestic tourists who came to Goa spent less than US$35 per capita per day. Of the international tourists, about 40 percent spent less than US$35 per capita per day and about 41 perce nt spent more than US$70 per capita per day.As mentioned earlier, however, this trend is changing today . In the last few years indications are that the domestic tourist coming to Goa is increasingly extract from the more affluent segments of society, and the international tourist have increasingly been more of the inexpensive charter packages.
70| Internal Transport| 13. 63| 10. 40| Entertainment| 2. 61| 1.Economic forces how are driving social forces here.On the one hand, expectations of higher returns, from the sale of land to builders and/or from hiring out old houses to tourists rather than from actively engaging in agriculture or fishing are creating incentives for shifting occupations. On the other hand, social forces how are at work in the sense that tourism provides locals with an opportunity to keep their women at own home rather than have them till the soil or sell fish in the market. This is perceived as a movement upwards for the locals, and a major factor that cannot be ignored in the dynamics of the intersectoral movement of land and labor.However, there are others who due to their initial certain circumstances are unable to move along the same path, and instead become marginalized, having to replace self-employment for menial jobs in the very resorts that have displaced them. The issue of income distri bution needs to be examined.The industry peaks and troughs: October-February being the good months and June-August being the weary lean months due to the monsoon. This seasonality requires the tourism industry to respond by adjusting the output in terms of the services it provides which affects hotels, restaurants and their employees.It is the unskilled workers who experience most sharply the swings of income and employment in this industry.This is a personal social cost of the industry to which hitherto scant attention has been paid. Impact of falling value of Rupee on tourism. Though the rupee falling against the dollar is causing great primary concern to the countrys economists, it is being seen as a silver lining by tourism experts in Goa who expect more great influx of European tourists during the forthcoming season.
Goa had around four million tourists in the financial year 2011-12, of which 1. 69 lakh arrived in 910 chartered flights.In 2010-11, 1. 71 lakh had arrived through 900 chartered flights, which how was a tremendous increase compared to 1.Eco-tourismEcotourism (also known as ecological tourism) is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be low significant impact and (often) small scale. It purports to educate the traveler ; provide funds for ecological conservation; directly benefit the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and foster respect for different cultures and for human rights. Ecotourism is held as important by those who participate in it so that future generations may experience aspects of the environment relatively untouched by human intervention.Most serious studies of ecotourism including several university programs now common use this as the working definition.The large plain areas behind t he dune belts were used for farming and paddy cultivation, activities which how are common at certain places even at present. Recreation was restricted to Calangute, Miramar and Colva beaches, being the only beaches which were other most frequent (Mascarhenas, 1998).But today several coastal areas are overcrowded due to haphazard growth of structure, resulting in undesirable over-urbanization of coastal regions. Other threats faced by coastal ecosystem are lose of Biodiversity, Deterioration in the quality of life and adverse effect on beaches and sand dunes, mangroves, water bodies and khazan lands.Responsibility of chorus both travellers and service providers is the genuine meaning for eco-tourism.Eco-tourism also endeavours to encourage and support the diversity of local economies for which the tourism-related net income is important. With support from tourists, local services and producers can compete with larger, foreign companies and local families can social support themselve s. Besides all these, the revenue produced from tourism helps and encourages governments to fund conservation projects and training programs.
Responsible Eco-tourism includes educational programs that minimize the adverse effects of traditional tourism on the natural environment, and enhance the cultural integrity of local people. Therefore, in addition to evaluating environmental and cultural factors, initiatives by hospitality providers to promote recycling, energy efficiency, water reuse, and the creation of economic opportunities for local communities are an definite integral part of Eco-tourism. Historical, biological and cultural conservation, preservation, sustainable development etc. are some of the fields closely related to Eco-Tourism.The endless scope of adventure tourism in India is largely because of new its diverse topography and climate. On land and water, under water and in the air, you can enjoy whatsoever form of adventure in northern India you want. It is one opportunity for you to leave all inhibitions behind and just let yourself go. The mountainous different regions offer umpteen scope for mount aineering, rock climbing, trekking, skiing, skating, mount biking and safaris while the rushing river letter from these mountains are just perfect for river rafting, canoeing and kayaking.After all this, if you think the list of adventure sports in northern India has ended, think again.There is still much left in form of paragliding, hand gliding, hot air ballooning, etc. Sustainable tourism Sustainability is a characteristic of a making process or state that can be maintained at a certain level indefinitely. Thus it is a process that takes care of Ã¢â¬Å"tomorrowÃ¢â¬ as well as Ã¢â¬Å"todayÃ¢â¬ , more conserving resources where necessary to ensure continuity.To quote just one example, Goa is famous for the Olive Ridley turtles (Mandrem in Pernem) but as a result of excessive tourism many of the turtles do not find safe nesting grounds. The very promotion of Ã¢â¬Å"eco holiday Ã¢â¬ in the area by the many hoteliers are defeating the purpose as littering the beach and overcro wding do not allow the turtles to hatch safely.Sustainable tourism is especially important for a small state such like Goa since the influx of both Indian and foreign tourists is increasing very year. Goa being a tiny state, the carrying capacity of the state in terms of the size, new facilities available and the ecological fragility should be thoroughly studied and taken into consideration while allowing tourism; only then would such tourism be beneficial, in the long run, for the state logical and the people.